Kamis, 11 Oktober 2012

Rangkuman Biologi Kelas VII (Versi Bahasa Inggris)


A.     Scientific work
1.       Definition
-          Biology is the study of living things.
2.       Scientific method
-          The scientific method is a method which is composed of a systematic steps used to solve the problem.
3.       Microscope
-          The microscope used to observe material or a very small organisms
B.      Characteristics and Classification of Living Things
1.      Characteristics of Living Things


-          Moving
-          Eat
-          Irritabilita
-          Breathing
-          Growing
-          Removing the waste
-          Breed 
-          Adapting


2.       Classification of Living Things
-          Classification is a way of learning objects by looking at the similarities & differences in the characteristics of living things
-          Scientific naming method:
·         Every living thing has a name that comprises two Latin words
·         The first word indicates the second word indicates the genus & species
·         Posting the name in italics / underlined.
-          The 5 kingdom:


·         Monera
·         Prosista
·         Fungi
·         Plantae
·         Animalia


C.      Life organization
1.       Cell
-          Cells are the smallest units making up the organism
-          Cell structure


·         Cell membrane 
·         Cytoplasm
·         cell nucleus
·         Mitochondria
·         Ribosomes
·         Endoplasmic reticulum 
·         Golgi Body
·         Lysosomes (only in animal cells)
·         Centrioles
·         Vacuoles
·         Plastids
·         Cell wall


2.       Tissues
-          Tissues is a collection of cells that have the same form and function
-          Based on the ability of cells to divide, plant tissues are distinguished:
·         Tissues meristem (actively dividing)
·         Permanent tissues (not actively dividing)
-          Animal tissues:


·         Epithelial tissues
·         Muscle tissue
·         Neural tissues
·         Advocates tissues


3.       Organs
-          Organ = collection of tissues that work together to perform a specific task.
4.       Organ system 
-          Organ systemsorgans that work together perform certain functions in the body 
-          Scheme compilers of the body's levels of organisms
Molecules -> cell -> Network -> organs -> organ systems -> organism-> population ->Community -> ecosystems -> biomes -> biosphere
D.     Ecosystem
1.       Ecosystem units


-          Individuals
-          Population
-          Community
-          Ecosystems
-          Biomes
-          Biosphere


2.       Ecosystem components
-          Abiotic Components


·         Water
·         Land
·         Air
·         Sunlight


-          Biotic components:


·         Manufacturers
·         Consumers
·         Decomposers


3.       Interaction Patterns


-          Parasitism
-          Mutualism
-          Komensalisme
-          Amensalisme


4.       Inter-Component Dependence biotic
-          The food chain
·         The process of energy transfer through the process of consuming food that make up a particular circuit.
·         Patterns of food chain
Manufacturers => Consumer I => Consumer II => Consumer III => Decomposers
E.      Biodiversity Conservation
1.       Causes of Scarcity
-          A low reproductive rate
-          Natural disasters
2.       Preservation efforts
-          Introduce / socialize plants & animals
-          Establish a conservation area
F.       Human Population Density
1.       Cause


-          Birthrate (births)
-          Mortality (death rate)
-          Migration (population movements)


2.       Due to population density


-          Decrease of clean air & water
-          Food shortages
-          Lack of land settlement
-          The decline in the quality of human
-          Etc.


3.       Population growth control effort


-          Implement family planning program
-          Improving the quality of community life
-          Creating employment
-          Increase food production
-          Delaying age at marriage


G.     Environmental Pollution


-          Pollution is the introduction of organic or inorganic materials or organisms into the environment & organisms in the environment can interfere


-          Water pollution
-          Pollution of soil
-          Air pollution
-          Pollution sound

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